What are the three main stages of sporophytic (that is, diploid generation) development in plants?
What are the five stages of embryogenesis in Arabidopsis?
What essential features of the mature plant are established during embryogenesis, and at what stage in embryogenesis is each feature determined?
Using a labeled diagram, show how the apical–basal organization of tissues in Arabidopsis seedlings is derived from earlier embryonic stages.
Compare and contrast “position-dependent” cell division patterns during plant embryogenesis with “lineage-dependent” cell division patterns during animal embryogenesis.
What is the evidence that the hormone auxin may serve as a signaling agent during plant embryogenesis?
Based on the phenotypes of their respective mutants, what basic developmental features are controlled by the following genes: GNOM, MONOPTEROS, SHORT-ROOT, SCARECROW, HOBBIT, and SHOOTMERISTEMLESS?
Using a labeled diagram, show how the radial pattern of tissue organization in Arabidopsis seedlings is derived from earlier embryonic stages.
What mutation in Arabidopsis causes the formation of vascular tissue consisting of xylem, but no phloem.
Discuss how the intercellular movement of a transcription factor is involved in the differentiation of cortical and endodermal cells in Arabidopsis.
Discuss the concept of “initial cells” in the root apical meristem. Where are they located and what tissues do they give rise to?
What is the “quiescent center” and where is it located? What is known about the function of the quiescent center?
How does auxin contribute to the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem? What is the role of cytokinin?
Describe the tissue zones and cell layers present in the shoot apical meristem.
What is the primary function of the CLAVATA genes, and what type of proteins do they encode? Diagram a model for CLV1 and CLV3 action and regulation at the molecular level. What is the nature of the extracellular signal regulating CLV1?
What is meant by “phyllotaxy”?
What are PIN proteins and what roles do they play in leaf initiation?
How do branch roots arise?
Define the terms “senescence,” “programmed cell death,” and “apoptosis.” Is senescence synonymous with “necrosis” (death)? Explain your answer. Discuss various types of senescence that can occur during plant development.
Discuss how the environment can regulate plant senescence.